OVER 3,500 refugees have made their way to Spain this year by sea or land, at least half of whom are from Syria, according to the United Nations High Commission for Refugees.
A total of 1,000,573 have reached Europe, with over 80% - or 844,176 – travelling to Greece, mainly to the island of Lesbos, plus another 152,000 to Italy and 105 to Malta.
Spain's 3,592 incoming migrants, who reach the coasts on rowing boats, small motor boats or even rubber dinghies, or climb the border fences from Morocco into Ceuta and Melilla, are frequently sub-Saharan Africans for geographical reasons, but an estimated 49% of Europe's total are Syrian, 21% from Afghanistan and 8% from Iraq.
The remainder are mainly from Eritrea (4%), Pakistan, Nigeria or Somalia (2%) or Sudan, Gambia, Sénégal and Mali (1%).
At least a quarter of all migrants and refugees are children, whilst 17% are adult women.
But in countries stricken by poverty rather than war or dictatorship, it is mainly the young, adult men who make the perilous journey as it is considered their responsibility to provide for their families – even if this means working abroad.
The UN High Commission says the 'vast majority' of those fleeing the countries in question and heading for Europe via the 'back door' are escaping violence, death, torture, persecution, armed conflict, or other types of inhumane treatment.
This year alone, an estimated 3,735 people have died trying to reach Europe and safety.
Last year, just 216,054 refugees and migrants tried to reach Europe, and 3,500 died en route.
These figures are in sharp contrast to 2013, when just 59,421 made it to Europe and 600 lost their lives.